The group converged on Roma Street in the CBD this morning, with many draped in Aboriginal flags and holding placards.
The protesters said the world needed to know the Stolen Generations was continuing, with 14,000 Indigenous children living in out-of-home care in Australia.
Many had travelled from across Australia to take part in the protest.
About 20 unarmed, plain-clothed police officers wearing blue hats monitored the group from the streets, while a police helicopter hovered above.
The group marched through the city escorted by police, with the rally ending at Musgrave Park at South Brisbane.
Police Inspector Tony Clarke said as a negotiator, he was there to “smooth out the rough patches between the two organisations”.
“In the past, it has been at times adversarial, but fortunately at the moment, relationships are fantastic between us and the first nations people,” he said.
He said police hoped all protests would be as peaceful as this one.
“Everything has been going really well,” he said.
Inspector Clarke said police negotiators were not armed, were deliberately dressed in casual clothes to be as “non-threatening as possible”, and also wearing special blue hats to be easily identifiable.
“Out of respect, none of the police negotiators were armed,” he said.
Paddy Gibson, a senior researcher with the Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), took part in the Brisbane protest today.
“I’ve come from Alice Springs today to join these protests against the continuing Stolen Generations that’s taking place in Australia,” he said.
“There’s currently more Aboriginal children being taken from their families than any time in Australia’s history.
“From where I’ve come from in the Northern Territory, the amount of children being taken has increased three times since the Northern Territory intervention in 2007.”
He said the rally was being held during the G20 week in a bid to capture the world’s attention.
“[Former prime minister] Kevin Rudd’s apology went all around the world,” he said.
“People think the removal of Aboriginal children by Australian Government is something that happened in the past, but it’s something that’s happening right now and the world needs to know that.
“We’re also here in solidarity with other Indigenous groups around the world, particularly in North America, who are suffering from very, very high rates of child removal by welfare agencies, just as Aboriginal people here in Australia are suffering.
“It very much seems to go along with the neo-liberal form of government that’s been pushed by G20 – they won’t fund the social services people need to look after their families and communities, but they will fund the punitive agencies that will go in and rip children away.”